Domino is a game played with tiles, or dominoes, that are divided into two squares by a line. The value of one side is the number of spots, also called pips; the other side is blank or 0 (no pips).
Games vary a great deal, but all have similar principles and goals. The basic strategy is to make a line of dominoes in the form of a circle or “bone yard.” When a player has played all their dominoes, they “knock” (rap) or play passes, and the next player picks up their set of dominoes to begin another round. Normally this is done with each individual player, but sometimes the game can be played by teams.
When a line of dominoes is completed, the player with the lowest hand wins. If a player cannot lay down a new line of dominoes, or if their current line has been blocked by another player, they may choose to “chip out” and play their last domino. This is also known as “locking down.”
Some players choose to play with more than the standard two sets of dominoes. Often these sets are called extended sets, and can be made from different materials than traditional dominoes. These are usually more expensive, but they have a distinct look and feel.
European dominoes are traditionally made from bone, silver lip ocean pearl oyster shell (MOP), ivory, or a dark hardwood such as ebony, with contrasting black or white pips. Some are carved from a single piece of wood, while others feature two-piece construction.
The earliest known manual on dominoes is the
Chinese dominoes are a variant of playing cards, but they differ in that their identity-bearing face is divided into three parts rather than the two in European dominoes. The number of pips on a tile is determined by the total number of spaces, or spots, on each face; some pips are blank, allowing a player to assign any value they like.
Many modern dominoes are crafted from synthetic polymer materials. These include acrylimide, polypropylene, nylon, and polyvinylchloride.
Using synthetic material to create dominoes is much cheaper than creating them out of natural materials such as marble or granite, which are more costly and harder to work with. However, the use of synthetic materials for dominoes can pose some risks in terms of environmental pollution or degradation.
This is because the polymer materials used to create dominoes are very dense and can easily be molded into intricate shapes, as well as causing plasticizers to break down or discolor over time. Some of these polymer-based materials can also contain toxic ingredients such as formaldehyde or phthalates.
In fact, a 2010 study found that exposing a child to a large amount of chemicals can have harmful effects on their cognitive development and behavior. A child’s attention span is reduced, and they can have difficulty remembering things they’ve just seen or heard. Similarly, adults can have trouble concentrating on tasks or making decisions.